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The difference between servo motor and stepper motor (video)

Source:X-TEAMC   Browse:   Release time:2019-10-08 17:33

The stepper motor is a discrete motion device that is intrinsically linked to modern digital control technology. In the current domestic digital control systems, stepper motors are widely used. With the advent of all-digital AC servo systems, AC servo motors are increasingly being used in digital control systems. In order to adapt to the development trend of digital control, stepping motor or all-digital AC servo motor is mostly used as the execution motor in the motion control system. Although the two are similar in control (burst and direction signals), there are large differences in performance and application. Now compare the performance of the two.
First, the control accuracy is different
The two-phase hybrid stepping motor step angle is generally 3.6 °, 1.8 °, and the five-phase hybrid stepping motor step angle is generally 0.72 °, 0.36 °. There are also some high performance stepper motors with smaller step angles. For example, a stepping motor for a slow wire-cutting machine produced by Sitong has a step angle of 0.09°; the three-phase hybrid stepping motor produced by BERGER LAHR can pass the step angle. The DIP switches are set to 1.8°, 0.9°, 0.72°, 0.36°, 0.18°, 0.09°, 0.072°, and 0.036°, and are compatible with the step angle of two-phase and five-phase hybrid stepping motors.
The control accuracy of the AC servo motor is guaranteed by the rotary encoder at the rear of the motor shaft. Taking Panasonic's all-digital AC servo motor as an example, for a motor with a standard 2500-line encoder, the pulse equivalent is 360°/10000=0.036° due to the quadruple frequency technology inside the driver. For a motor with a 17-bit encoder, the drive receives one revolution per 217 = 131072 pulsed motors, ie its pulse equivalent is 360°/131072 = 9.89 seconds. It is 1/655 of the pulse equivalent of a stepping motor with a step angle of 1.8°.
Second, the low frequency characteristics are different
Stepper motors are prone to low frequency vibration at low speeds. The vibration frequency is related to the load condition and the performance of the driver. It is generally considered that the vibration frequency is half of the take-off frequency of the motor no-load. This low frequency vibration phenomenon, which is determined by the working principle of the stepper motor, is very detrimental to the normal operation of the machine. When the stepper motor works at low speed, damping technology should generally be used to overcome low-frequency vibration phenomena, such as adding a damper to the motor or subdividing the drive.
The AC servo motor runs very smoothly, and vibration does not occur even at low speeds. The AC servo system has a resonance suppression function, which can cover the rigidity of the machine, and has a frequency analysis function (FFT) inside the system, which can detect the resonance point of the machine and facilitate system adjustment.
Third, the difference in frequency characteristics
The output torque of the stepping motor decreases as the speed increases, and it drops sharply at higher speeds, so the maximum operating speed is generally 300-600 RPM. The AC servo motor is a constant torque output, that is, it can output the rated torque within its rated speed (generally 2000RPM or 3000RPM), and it is a constant power output above the rated speed.

Fourth, the overload capacity is different
Stepper motors generally do not have overload capability. The AC servo motor has a strong overload capability. Take the Panasonic AC servo system as an example, it has speed overload and torque overload capability. Its maximum torque is three times the rated torque and can be used to overcome the moment of inertia of the inertia load at the moment of starting. Because there is no such overload capability in stepping motors, in order to overcome this moment of inertia during the selection, it is often necessary to select a motor with a large torque, and the machine does not need such a large torque during normal operation, and a torque appears. The phenomenon of waste.
Five, different operating performance
The control of the stepping motor is open-loop control. If the starting frequency is too high or the load is too large, it may be lost or blocked. If the speed is too high during the stop, the overshoot may occur. Therefore, in order to ensure the control accuracy, it should be handled well. The problem of raising and lowering speed. The AC servo drive system is closed-loop control. The drive can directly sample the feedback signal of the motor encoder. The internal position loop and speed loop are formed. Generally, the stepless motor is lost or overshooted, and the control performance is more reliable.
Sixth, the speed response performance is different
It takes 200 to 400 milliseconds for the stepper motor to accelerate from standstill to the operating speed (typically several hundred revolutions per minute). The AC servo system has better acceleration performance. Taking the Panasonic MSMA 400W AC servo motor as an example, it takes only a few milliseconds to accelerate from standstill to its rated speed of 3000 RPM, which can be used for control applications requiring fast start and stop.
In summary, the AC servo system is superior to the stepper motor in many performance aspects. However, in some occasions where the requirements are not high, stepper motors are often used to perform the motor. Therefore, in the design process of the control system, it is necessary to comprehensively consider the control requirements, cost and other factors, and select the appropriate control motor.

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